[1]李 柏,张友民,邵之江. 自动驾驶车辆运动规划方法综述[J].控制与信息技术,2018,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2096-5427.2018.06.100]
 LI Bai,ZHANG Youmin,SHAO Zhijiang. Motion Planning Methodologies for Automated Vehicles: A Critical Review[J].High Power Converter Technology,2018,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2096-5427.2018.06.100]
点击复制

 自动驾驶车辆运动规划方法综述()
分享到:

《控制与信息技术》[ISSN:2095-3631/CN:43-1486/U]

卷:
期数:
2018年06期
页码:
1
栏目:
出版日期:
2018-12-05

文章信息/Info

Title:
 Motion Planning Methodologies for Automated Vehicles: A Critical Review
文章编号:
2096-5427(2018)06-0000-00
作者:
 李 柏1张友民2邵之江1
 (1. 浙江大学 控制科学与工程学院,浙江 杭州 310027;2. 康考迪亚大学 机械与工业工程系,加拿大 魁北克省 蒙特利尔市 H3G 1M8)
Author(s):
 LI Bai1ZHANG Youmin2SHAO Zhijiang1
 ( 1. College of Control Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China;
2. Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Aerospace Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8, Canada )
关键词:
 自动驾驶路径规划轨迹规划运动规划
Keywords:
 automated driving path planning trajectory planning motion planning
分类号:
TP249
DOI:
10.13889/j.issn.2096-5427.2018.06.100
文献标志码:
A
摘要:
 自动驾驶车辆是汇集了环境感知、规划决策、控制执行及信息交互的高新技术综合体,其规划决策模块负责生成车辆的行驶行为,是体现车辆智慧水平的关键。规划决策模块包括任务规划、路线规划、行为规划及运动规划等环节,其中运动规划环节负责生成车辆的局部运动轨迹,是决定车辆行驶质量的直接因素。文章总结了近年来国内自动驾驶运动规划相关研究成果,将现有算法归纳为曲线插值方法、采样方法、机器学习方法以及最优控制方法,分析了各类方法的优缺点。可以预见,未来各类算法将进一步进行融合,弥补各自的缺点。在运动规划算法的设计中,如何精准建模描述车辆运动过程,如何客观清晰地描述环境情况,如何完成算法的容错冗余设计,如何简化求解难度以及如何保障算法的泛化求解能力,将是今后值得着重关注的议题。
Abstract:
 Automated vehicle is a high-tech complexe integrated with environmental awareness, planning decisions, control execution, and information interaction. Among the primary modules in an automated vehicle system, the decision-making module is responsible for generating the driving behaviors of the automated vehicle, thus being a critical and direct reflection of the intelligence level of the whole system. The decision-making module usually consists of several layers, namely the task planning, route planning, behavior planning and motion planning. This article revieweed the Chinese references about motion planning in recent years, and classified them as curve-based, sample-based, learning-based and optimization-based categories. The advantages and disadvantages of each category were discussed in details. As the trend, the methods from different categories would integrate so as to strengthen the capability in dealing with real-world demands. Issues such as vehicle kinematic model formulation, environment description, fault-recovery strategy design, solution space reduction and solution unification deserve further investigations in the future.

参考文献/References:

[1]李柏. 复杂约束下自动驾驶车辆运动规划的计算最优控制方法研究[D]. 杭州:浙江大学,2018.
[2]GONZÁLEZ D, PÉREZ J, MILANÉS V, et al. A review of motion planning techniques for automated vehicles[J]. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2016, 17(4):1135-1145.
[3]LI B, ZHANG Y M, SHAO Z J, et al. Simultaneous versus joint computing: A case study of multi-vehicle parking motion planning[J]. Journal of Computational Science, 2017(20):30-40.
[4]LI B, SHAO Z J, ZHANG Y M, et al. Nonlinear programming for multi-vehicle motion planning with homotopy initialization strategies[C]//IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, 2017:118-123.
[5]余卓平,李奕姗,熊璐. 无人车运动规划算法综述[J]. 同济大学学报(自然科学版),2017,45(8):1150-1159.
YU Z P, LI Y S, XIONG L. A Review of the Motion Planning Problem of Autonomous Vehicle[J]. Journal of Tongji University(Natural Science), 2017, 45(8):1150–1159.
[6]徐磊. 基于EPS 的自动泊车路径规划及跟踪控制研究[D]. 合肥:合肥工业大学,2017.
[7]邹传伍,周瑞浩,马彪. 基于超声波的全自动平行泊车路径规划[J]. 机电信息,2017(33):11-12.
[8]李攀,黄江,杨浩,等. 基于双匀速轨迹的自动泊车路径规划研究[J]. 重庆理工大学学报,2017(9):36-44.
LI P, HUANG J,YANG H, et al. Trajectory Planning Method Based on Double Constant Speed for Automatic Parking Systems[J].Journal of Chongqing Institute of Technology, 2017(9):36-44.
[9]吴玲玉,白国振,管登诗. 自动泊车的运动轨迹规划[J]. 农业装备与车辆工程,2017,55(9):85-89.
WU L Y, BAI G Z, GUAN D S. Trajectory Planning of Automatic Parking[J]. Agricultural Equipment & Vehicle Engineering, 2017,55(9):85-89.
[10]张永华,杜煜,潘峰,等. 基于三次B 样条曲线拟合的智能车轨迹跟踪算法[J]. 计算机应用,2018,38(6):1562-1567.
ZHANG Y H, DU Y, PAN F, et al. Intelligent vehicle path tracking algorithm based on cubic B-spline curve fitting[J]. Journal of Computer Applications, 2018, 38(6):1562-1567.
[11]王玉玺. 面向自动驾驶的动态路径规划避障算法[J]. 数字技术与应用,2017(8):126.
WANG Y X. Dynamic Route Planning Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for Automatic Driving[J]. Digital Technology & Application, 2017(8):126.
[12]李飞琦, 鲍泓,潘峰,等. 智能车导航中的路口轨迹生成策略[J]. 计算机工程,2018,44(7):25-31.
LI F Q, BAO H, PAN F, et al. Intersection Trajectory Generation Strategy in Intelligent Vehicle Navigation[J]. Computer Engineering, 2018, 44(7):25-31.
[13]章谨. 基于网格化场景下多车式机器人运动协调算法研究与实现[D]. 北京:北京交通大学,2017.
[14]彭莉斯,朱明,蒋涛,等. 基于三阶反正切函数模型的平行泊车轨迹规划[J]. 测控技术,2018,37(7):148-152.
PENG L S, ZHU M, JIANG T, et al. Parallel Parking Path Planning Based on Three-Order Arctangent Function Model[J].Measurement & Control Technology, 2018, 37(7):148-152.
[15]李韬. 自动泊车系统的路径规划及跟踪[D]. 哈尔滨:哈尔滨工业大学,2017.
[16]张荣辉,游峰,初鑫男,等. 车- 车协同下无人驾驶车辆的换道汇入控制方法[J]. 中国公路学报,2018,31(4):180-191.
ZHANG R H, YOU F, CHU X N, et al. Lane Change Merging Control Method for Unmanned Vehicle under V2V Cooperative Environmen[t J].China Journal of Highway and Transport, 2018, 31(4):180-191.
[17]冯来春. 基于引导域的参数化RRT 无人驾驶车辆运动规划算法研究[D]. 合肥:中国科学技术大学,2017.
[18]宋晓琳,周南,黄正瑜,等. 改进RRT 在汽车避障局部路径规划中的应用[J]. 湖南大学学报(自然科学版),2017,44(4):30-37.
SONG X L, ZHOU N, HUANG Z Y, et al. An Improved RRT Algorithm of Local Path Planning for Vehicle Collision Avoidance[J].Journal of Hunan University(Natural Sciences), 2017, 44(4):30-37.
[19]吴彬彬,罗峰. 基于RRT 的智能车辆路径规划算法[J]. 机电一体化,2017,23(10):15-23.
[20]李敏,周远远,黄鲁. 基于距离变换的PRM路径规划算法[J].信息技术与网络安全,2018,37(3):74-79.
LI M, ZHOU Y Y, HUANG L. Distance transform based PRM path planning algorithm[J]. Information Technology and Network Security, 2018, 37(3):74-79.
[21]单云霄,郭晓旻,龙江云,等. 渐优随机采样算法在结构化道路无人驾驶中的应用[J]. 中国公路学报,2018,31(4):192-201.
SHAN Y X, GUO X M, LONG J Y, et al. Asymptotically Samplingbased Algorithm with Applications to Autonomous Urban Driving on Structured Road[J]. China Journal of Highway and Transport,2018,31(4):192-201.
[22]郭奕璀,蒋涛,张葛祥. 基于动态窗口和绕墙走的自动垂直泊车轨迹规划[J]. 交通信息与安全,2017,35(1):92-97.
GUO Y C, JIANG T, ZHANG G X. Trajectory Planning for Automatic Vertical Parking Based on Dynamic Window and Wall Following Approach[J]. Journal of Transport Information and Safety, 2017, 35(1):92-97.
[23]梁广民. 一种新的自动驾驶轨迹规划方法[J]. 电子科技大学学报,2017,46(4):600-606.
LIANG G M. Novel Trajectory Planning Method for Autonomous Driving[J]. Journal of University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, 2017, 46(4):600-606.
[24]刘红星. 基于视觉的无人驾驶车辆运动控制的研究[D]. 成都:西南交通大学,2018.
[25]石峰,郭鑫,龙智卓,等. 地下矿用车辆无人驾驶目标路径规划方法研究[J]. 矿冶,2018,27(4):87-91.
SHI F, GUO X, LONG Z Z, et al. Study on Target Path Planning Method for Underground Mining Unmanned Vehicles[J]. Mining and Metallurgy, 2018, 27(4):87-91.
[26]窦凤谦. 地下矿用铰接车路径跟踪与智能避障控制研究[D].北京:北京科技大学,2018.
[27]刘珏. 基于逆强化学习的舰载机牵引车路径规划研究[D]. 哈尔滨:哈尔滨工程大学,2017.
[28]项宏峰,曹少中,徐长波,等. 基于神经网络的AGV 智能车路径规划的仿真研究[J]. 北京印刷学院学报,2017,25(7):128-130.
XIANG H F, CAO S Z, XU C B, et al. Simulation Research of AGV Intelligent Vehicle Path Planning Based on Neural Network[J]. Journal of Beijing Institute of Graphic Communication, 2017, 25(7):128-130.
[29]徐春玲. 面向平行泊车场景的自动泊车控制策略研究[D]. 北京:北方工业大学,2018.
[30]邵俊恺,赵翾,杨珏,等. 无人驾驶铰接式车辆强化学习路径跟踪控制算法[J]. 农业机械学报,2017,48(3):376-382.
SHAO J K, ZHAO X, YANG J,et al. Reinforcement Learning Algorithm for Path Following Control of Articulated Vehicle[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery,2017, 48(3):376-382.
[31]任群. 基于人工智能算法的机器人路径规划研究[J]. 遵义师范学院学报,2018,20(1):107-110.
REN Q. On Path Planning Based on Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Robots[J]. Journal of Zunyi Normal College, 2018, 20(1):107-110.
[32]姚君延. 基于深度增强学习的路径规划算法研究[D]. 成都:电子科技大学,2018.
[33]LI B, SHAO Z J. A unified motion planning method for parking an autonomous vehicle in the presence of irregularly placed obstacles[J]. Knowledge-Based Systems, 2015(86):11-20.
[34]刘凯,龚建伟,陈舒平,等. 高速无人驾驶车辆最优运动规划与控制的动力学建模分析[J]. 机械工程学报,2018,54(14):141-151.
LIU K, GONG J W, CHEN S P, et al. Dynamic Modeling Analysis of Optimal Motion Planning and Control for High-speed Self-driving Vehicles[J]. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2018, 54(14): 141-151.
[35]王富奎. 高动态环境下智能车局部路径规划研究[D]. 成都:电子科技大学,2018.
[36]赵海兰,高松,孙宾宾,等. 全自动平行泊车路径规划方法研究[J]. 科学技术与工程,2017,17(7):263-269.
ZHAO H L,GAO S, SUN B B, et al. Research on Path Planning Method for Fully-automatic Parallel Parking System[J]. Science Technology and Engineering, 2017, 17(7):263-269.
[37]冀杰,唐志荣,吴明阳,等. 面向车道变换的路径规划及模型预测轨迹跟踪[J]. 中国公路学报,2018,31(4):172-179.
JI J, TANG Z R, WU M Y, et al. Path Planning and Tracking for Lane Changing Based on Model Predictive Control[J]. China Journal of Highway and Transport, 2018, 31(4):172-179.
[38]韩伟,孙凯彪. 基于模糊人工势场法的智能全向车路径规划[J].计算机工程与应用,2018,54(6):105-109.
[39]黄超杰. 视觉导航智能车避障路径规划及横向控制研究[D].西安:长安大学,2017.
[40]安林芳. 智能车辆自动驾驶路径规划研究[D]. 长沙:湖南大学,2017.
[41]刘二辉,姚锡凡,蓝宏宇,等. 基于改进遗传算法的自动导引小车动态路径规划及其实现[J]. 计算机集成制造系统,2018,24(6):1455-1467.
LIU E H, YAO X F, LAN H Y, et al. AGV dynamic path planning based on improved genetic algorithm and its implementation[J].Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems,2018, 24(6):1455-1467.
[42]陈无畏,方玉杰,魏振亚. 基于遗传算法优化的双向垂直泊车路径规划[J]. 汽车工程,2017,39(11):1325-1332.
CHEN W W, FANG Y J, WEI Z Y. Path Planning of Two-direction Vertical Parking Based on Optimization with Genetic Algorithm[J]. Automotive Engineering, 2017, 39(11):1325-1332.
[43]陈春朝,李恒宇,罗均. 基于混合蛙跳算法优化人工势场的路径规划方法研究[J]. 河南理工大学学报(自然科学版),2018(5):105-110.
CHEN C C, LI H Y, LUO J. Study on path planning algorithm based on artificial potential field optimized by shuffled frog leaping algorithm[J]. Journal of Henan Polytechnic University(Natural Science), 2018(5):105-110.
[44]LI B, ZHANG Y M, FENG Y H, et al. Balancing computation speed and quality: A decentralized motion planning method for cooperative lane changes of connected and automated vehicles[J].IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Vehicles, 2018, 3(3):340-350.
[45]LI B, ZHANG Y, ZHANG Y M, et al. Cooperative lane change motion planning of connected and automated vehicles: A stepwise computational framework[C]//2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, 2018:334-338.
[46]LI B, SHAO Z J. An incremental strategy for tractor-trailer vehicle global trajectory optimization in the presence of obstacles[C]//2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, 2015:1447-1452.
[47]LI B, ZHANG Y M, SHAO Z J. Spatio-temporal decomposition: A knowledge-based initialization strategy for parallel parking motion optimization[J]. Knowledge-Based Systems, 2016, 107:179-196.
[48]高健博. 无人驾驶汽车运动规划方法研究综述[J]. 汽车工业研究,2018(8):37-42.
[49]任子玉. 智能车自主避障路径规划研究综述[J]. 软件导刊,2017,16(10):209-212.
REN Z Y. A Summary of Research on Autonomous Vehicles of Intelligent Vehicles[J]. Software Guide, 2017, 16(10):209-212.
[50]周伟,李军. 自动驾驶车辆避障路径规划研究综述[J]. 汽车工程师,2018(5):55-58.
[51]SCHWARTING W, ALONSO-MORA J, RUS D. Planning and Decision-Making for Autonomous Vehicles[J]. Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, 2018(1):187-210.
[52]AMER N H, ZAMZURI H, HUDHA K, et al. Modelling and control strategies in path tracking control for autonomous ground vehicles: a review of state of the art and challenges[J]. Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems, 2017, 86(2):225-254.
[53]MOHANAN M G, SALGOANKAR A. A survey of robotic motion planning in dynamic environments[J]. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 2018(100):171-185.
[54]MOHAMED A, EL-GINDY M, REN J. Advanced control techniques for unmanned ground vehicle: literature survey[J].International Journal of Vehicle Performance, 2018, 4(1):46-73.
[55]DIXIT S, FALLAH S, MONTANARO U, et al. Trajectory planning and tracking for autonomous overtaking: State-of-the-art and future prospects[J]. Annual Reviews in Control, 2018( 45):76-86.
[56]GUANETTI J, KIM Y, BORRELLI F. Control of connected and automated vehicles: State of the art and future challenges[J].Annual Reviews in Control, 2018(45):18-40.

相似文献/References:

[1]冯江华,胡 惇,罗凌波. 交直交中压大功率变频技术在冶金轧机上的应用[J].控制与信息技术,2015,(05):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2015.05.001]
 FENG Jianghua,HU Dun,LUO Lingbo. Application of AC-DC-AC High -power Medium-voltage Converter on Metallurgical Mill[J].High Power Converter Technology,2015,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2015.05.001]
[2]张 明. 现代电力电子集成技术综述[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(01):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.01.001]
 ZHANG Ming. Overview of Modern Power Electronics Integration Technology[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.01.001]
[3]窦泽春,刘国友,陈 俊,等. 大功率压接式IGBT 器件设计与关键技术[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(02):21.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.02.005]
 DOU Zechun,LIU Guoyou,CHEN Jun,et al. Design and Key Technologies of High-power Press-pack IGBT Device[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):21.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.02.005]
[4]熊 辉,袁 勇,黄 南,等. 风电功率组件电热特性分析[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(02):47.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.02.010]
 XIONG Hui,YUAN Yong,HUANG Nan,et al. Analysis of Electrical & Thermal Performances for Power Assembly of Wind Power[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):47.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.02.010]
[5]邓云川,高 宏,陈建君. 基于拓展Carson 理论的单线隧道内牵引网电气参数计算研究[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(03):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.03.100]
 DENG Yunchuan,GAO Hong,CHEN Jianjun. Study of Electrical Parameter Calculation for Traction Network in Single-line Tunnel Based on the Extend of Carson Theory[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.03.100]
[6]章志兵,张志学,陈志博. 交流传动列车谐波性能优化策略[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(04):0.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.04.001]
 ZHANG Zhibing,ZHANG Zhixue,CHEN Zhibo. Optimization of the Harmonic in AC Drive Locomotive and EMUs[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):0.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.04.001]
[7]王 俊,张 渊,李宗鉴,等. SiC GTO 晶闸管技术现状及发展[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(05):7.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.05.100]
 WANG Jun,ZHANG Yuan,LI Zongjian,et al. Technology Status and Development of SiC GTO Thyristor[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):7.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.05.100]
[8]彭朝阳,白 云,申华军,等. 3 300 V 高压4H-SiC 结势垒肖特基二极管器件的研制[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(05):46.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.05.200]
 PENG Zhaoyang,BAI Yun,SHEN Huajun,et al. Development of High voltage 4H-SiC Junction Barrier Schottky Diode with 3 300 V Blocking Voltage[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):46.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.05.200]
[9]臧晓笛,田德文. 低开关频率下永磁同步电机弱磁区电流谐波抑制[J].控制与信息技术,2016,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.06.200]
 ZANG Xiaodi,TIAN Dewen. Current Harmonic Suppression of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Weak Magnetic Field under Low Switching Frequency[J].High Power Converter Technology,2016,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2016.06.200]
[10]孟乐轩,赵 鑫,Mehdi Savaghebi,等. 微电网电能质量分层控制及其关键技术[J].控制与信息技术,2017,(02):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2017.02.100]
 MENG Lexuan,ZHAO Xin,SAVAGHEBI Mehdi,et al. Hierarchical Control and its Key Technologies for Power Quality Enhancement in Micro-grids[J].High Power Converter Technology,2017,(06):1.[doi:10.13889/j.issn.2095-3631.2017.02.100]

备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
 收稿日期:2018—08—30
作者简介:李柏(1989—),男,博士,从事轮式移动机器人决策规划与控制算法研究。
更新日期/Last Update: 2018-11-30